528 THE SEROTINE AND PIPISTRELLK CHAP. these two characters it may be added that the nose leaf Is well developed, but is not so complicated as in the last family. The type genus Nycteris is Ethiopian and Oriental, nine species being African, and only one, N. javanica, being, as the specific name denotes, from the East. Megaderma is to be distinguished by the loss of the upper incisors. There is no tail, and the ears are particularly large. They are carnivorous flats, and M. lyra, called the " Indian Yanipire Bat," chiefly affects frogs as an article of diet. Fam. 3. Vespertilionidae.—This family has not the nose leaf of other families. The apertures of the nostrils are simple, round, or crescentic apertures. The ear has a tragus, and the tail is not produced to any great degree behind the interfemoral membrane. There are two phalanges to the index digit. This family in numbers of species is vastly in excess of any other family of Bats. The most recent estimate, that of P. L. and "W. L. Sclater, allows 190. But the generic types are by no means so numerous as in the Phyllostomatidae. This is a signi- ficant fact when we reflect upon the geographical range of the two families. The Vespertilionidae range over the whole earth, while the Phyllostomatidae are practically limited to the South American continent, only just getting into the Nearctic region. They in- habit, therefore, a more restricted area, and, in consequence of competition, have specialised more freely than the widely-spread and therefore not crowded "Vespertilionidae. The genus Vesperugo is by far the largest genus of this family, embracing no less than seventy species. The tail is shorter than the head and body together; the ears are separate, arid moderate or short in size ; the tragus is generally short and obtuse. The dentition is I 2, C 1, Pm 2 or 1, M 3. It is a remarkable fact that this genus, unlike most Bats, produces two young at a time. The genus is universal in range, and one species, the Serotine Bat, known in this country, even ranges from, the Itfew "World to the Old; but with so small a creature the possibility of accidental transportation by man must not be left out of sight. The British species are— F". serotinus, the Serotine already mentioned; V. discolor, a single example only of which has occurred, and may have been introduced; V. noctula, the habits of which were described by Gilbert White; V. leisleri; and the Pipistrelle, V. pipistrellws, wliicli is the best-known member of the genus in this eoraitry.